Decoding the Language of IT Made Easy
Welcome to Nortec’s IT Glossary, your personal decoder for the intricate world of IT! This isn’t just a list of terms, it’s a journey crafted to transform IT complexities into clear, comprehensible concepts. Whether you’re an IT veteran looking for a memory jog or new to the tech world, our glossary is designed to ensure you navigate this landscape with ease.
Remember, IT shouldn’t be an uphill battle. That’s why our expert team at Nortec is on standby to assist. We’re here to be your trusted guide in your IT journey, transforming confusion into clarity, one term at a time.
Active Directory (AD)A Microsoft product that consists of several services that run on Windows Server to manage permissions and access to networked resources.
AdwareA type of malicious software designed to insert adverts into webpages or even standalone pop-up ads.
Anti-virus softwarePrograms used to detect, fend off and remove malicious software.
AuthenticationThe process of confirming the identity of a person or software program.
BackdoorAn unintended software vulnerability that allows unauthorized users to gain access.
BackupRegular creation of copies of data, or the copy of data itself. These are used to restore and recover data.
Backup and Disaster Recovery (BDR)A combined approach to data protection that encompasses both backup and a strategy for recovering this data in the event of a catastrophic event (disaster recovery). This process involves storing data in a separate, secure location. Ideally, this is off-site with cloud-based redundancy, soit can easily be restored if there is a hardware failure, data corruption, cyberattack, or other form of data loss.
Black Hat HackerA person who uses their skills for illegal or unethical purposes.
BotA type of software application created by hackers to carry out specific tasks.
BotnetA network of private computers, infected with malicious software and controlled as a group.
BreachAn incident where data is unintentionally left unprotected, potentially leading to information being viewed, accessed or stolen by unauthorized individuals.
Break/Fix ServicesIT services provided on a need-based, reactive basis where an IT company repairs systems as they break.
Brute Force AttackA trial-and-error method used to decode encrypted data, such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys.
BugA coding error in a computer program leading to unexpected and incorrect or erratic behaviors.
Business Continuity Planning (BCP)The creation and validation of a practiced logistical plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption.
BYOD (Bring Your Own Device)Policy that allows employees to bring personal devices (laptops, tablets, etc.) to their workplace.
CookiesFiles sent by web servers to web browsers, to be stored and sent back upon the server’s request.
CryptographyThe method of disguising and revealing (otherwise known as encrypting and decrypting) information using mathematics.
Data Loss Prevention (DLP)Strategies for making sure end users do not send sensitive or critical information outside the corporate network.
Data MiningThe practice of examining large databases to generate new information.
DDoS Attack (Distributed Denial of Service)An attempt to disrupt the normal functioning of a network, service or website by overwhelming it with a flood of internet traffic.
DNS FilteringUsing the Domain Name System to block malicious websites or filter out harmful or inappropriate content.
Domain Name System (DNS)The system by which Internet domain names and addresses are tracked and regulated.
EncryptionThe process of converting plaintext data into unreadable ciphertext to prevent unauthorized access.
End UserThe person who uses or is intended to use a product.
EndpointAny device that is physically an endpoint on a network. Laptops, desktops, mobile phones, tablets, servers, and virtual environments can all be considered endpoints.
FirmwarePermanent software programmed into a read-only memory.
HackerA skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem or barrier.
HardeningThe process of securing a system by reducing its surface of vulnerability.
Hardware as a Service (HaaS)A hardware procurement model similar to leasing or licensing, where hardware that belongs to a managed service provider (MSP) is installed at a customer’s site and the customer uses the hardware for a specific period of time. The hardware remains the property of the MSP, and the customer pays a monthly fee for using it. The HaaS model can include installation, maintenance, and upgrades, providing the customer with an up-to-date and suitable IT hardware environment.
HashingThe process of converting one value into another. In cryptography, it is a method to ensure the integrity of data.
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)An encrypted version of HTTP, it is used for secure communication over a computer network.
Hybrid ITAn approach to enterprise computing in which an organization provides and manages some information technology (IT) resources in-house but uses cloud-based services for others.
HypervisorSoftware that creates and runs virtual machines.
Incident ManagementAn organizational process for dealing with incidents.
Incident ResponseA strategic approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a security breach or cyberattack in a computer system. It encompasses a set of preplanned and reactive activities, aimed at minimizing damage and ensuring that the incident is handled in a way that limits damage and reduces recovery time and costs.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)A form of cloud computing that provides virtualized computing resources over the internet.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS)A device or software application that monitors a network for malicious activity or policy violations.
Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)Network security appliances that monitor network and/or system activities for malicious activity.
IP Address (Internet Protocol Address)A numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network.
ISP (Internet Service Provider)A company that provides internet access to both personal and business customers.
KeyloggerA type of surveillance technology used to monitor and record each keystroke typed on a specific computer’s keyboard.
Load BalancingThe distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, or disk drives.
MAC Address (Media Access Control)A unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment.
Managed BackupA service provided by managed IT service providers where they handle the data backup procedures and policies on behalf of the client.
Managed Modern Workplace– Nortec’s Managed Cloud Portal with full desktop support and additional security add-ons to protect end users on the desktop applications.
Managed NetworkA type of IT service delivered by a third-party provider where the network services are outsourced.
MalwareSoftware designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system without the owner’s informed consent.
Microsoft ExcelA spreadsheet program included in the Microsoft Office suite of applications. Spreadsheets present tables of values arranged in rows and columns that can be manipulated mathematically, using both basic and complex arithmetic operations and functions.
Microsoft OneDriveOneDrive is a file-hosting service and synchronization service operated by Microsoft. It allows users to store files and personal data like Windows settings or BitLocker recovery keys in the cloud, share files, and sync files across mobile devices, pcs, and even Xbox gaming consoles.
Microsoft SharePointA web-based collaborative platform that integrates with Microsoft Office. It is primarily sold as a document management and storage system, but the product is highly configurable, and usage varies substantially among organizations.
Microsoft WordA word processor included in Microsoft’s Office suite. It is used for creating, editing, formatting, and printing documents.
NetworkA group of two or more computer systems linked together.
Network Infrastructurethe hardware and software resources of an entire network that enable network connectivity, communication, operations, and management of an enterprise network. The network infrastructure of an organization encompasses a wide range of equipment such as routers, switches, servers, firewalls, and network management software.
Off-Premiserefers to systems or services that are hosted or provided outside the user’s physical location or primary infrastructure. This can include cloud services, or outsourcing services to third-party providers.
Operating System (OS)A software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides various services for computer programs.
Outsourced ITThe practice of hiring third-party service providers to deliver IT functions.
Patch ManagementAn area of systems management that involves acquiring, testing, and installing multiple patches to an administered computer system.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)A cloud computing model in which a third-party provider delivers hardware and software tools to users over the internet.
Professional Services Automation (PSA)Software designed to assist professionals, such as IT consultants, with project management and resource management for client projects.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)A set of roles, policies, hardware, software and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.
Remote Monitoring and Management (RMM)A category of software tools that allow managed IT service providers to monitor and manage endpoints, networks, and computers remotely.
SandboxA testing environment that isolates untested code changes and outright experimentation from the production environment or repository.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)The standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser.
Security Operations Center (SOC)A centralized unit that deals with security issues on an organizational and technical level.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)A contract between a service provider and a customer that specifies, usually in measurable terms, what services the provider will furnish.
Social EngineeringThe use of deception to manipulate individuals into divulging confidential or personal information.
Software as a Service (SaaS)A software licensing and delivery model in which software is provided on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted. It is sometimes referred to as “on-demand software.”
Software Defined Networking (SDN)An approach to networking that allows network administrators to manage network services through abstraction of lower-level functionality.
SpamUnsolicited or undesired bulk email.
Spear PhishingA phishing method that targets specific individuals or groups within an organization.
SpywareA type of malware that is installed on a computer and collects information about users without their knowledge.
SQL InjectionA code injection technique that attackers use to insert malicious SQL statements into input fields for execution.
SSL CertificateA type of digital certificate that provides authentication for a website and enables an encrypted connection.
ThreatA possible danger that might exploit a vulnerability to breach security and, therefore, cause harm to an organization.
Trojan HorseA type of malicious software that misleads users of its true intent.
Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)A security process in which the user provides two different authentication factors to verify themselves.
Unified Threat Management (UTM)An information security term that refers to a single security solution, and usually a single security appliance, that provides multiple security functions at a single point on the network.
VirusA type of malicious software that, when executed, replicates by reproducing itself or infecting other programs by modifying them.
Virtual CIO (vCIO)A part-time resource provided by a managed services provider, who The vCIO serves in the role of a traditional Chief Information Officer (CIO) for companies who do not have budget to hire one. They are responsible for formulating strategic IT goals and recommending technology aligned with the goals of the business. goals of the business.
Virtual Machine (VM)An emulation of a computer system. Virtual machines are based on computer architectures and provide the functionality of a physical computer.
White Hat HackerAn individual who hacks for ethical reasons, identifying weaknesses in a system in order to repair them.
Web Application Firewall (WAF)A firewall that monitors, filters or blocks data packets as they travel to and from a website or web application.
Web HostingA service that allows organizations and individuals to post a website or web page onto the Internet.
WhalingIn the realm of cybersecurity, whaling refers to a specific type of phishing attack that is targeted at high-profile individuals within an organization, such as executives or senior management. Whaling attacks are often more sophisticated social engineering attacks and are typically designed to trick the target into revealing sensitive information, or granting unauthorized access to systems or data.
WormA standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
Zero-Day ExploitAn attack that exploits a potentially serious software security weakness that the vendor or developer may be unaware of.